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Diamond ,as the hardest known naturally occurring material, (scoring 10)have been treasured as gemstones since their use as religious icons in India at least 2,500 years ago.Popularity of diamonds has risen since the 19th century because of increased supply, improved cutting and polishing techniques, growth in the world economy, and innovative and successful advertising campaigns.
They are commonly judged by the “Four Cs”: color, carat, clarity, and cut.
Diamonds can occur in nearly any color, though yellow and brown are by far the most common. "Black" diamonds are not truly black, but rather contain numerous dark inclusions that give the gem its dark appearance. Diamonds with a detectable hue other than yellow or brown are known as colored diamonds. If the color is strong enough, a stone may be referred to as a fancy colored diamond by the trade. Colored diamonds contain impurities or structural defects that cause the coloration, while pure or nearly pure diamonds are transparent and colorless.
The carat weight measures the mass of a diamond. One carat is defined as a fifth of a gram, or exactly 200 milligrams (about 0.007 ounce). The point unit—equal to one one-hundredth of a carat (0.01 carat, or 2 mg)—is commonly used for diamonds of less than one carat.
Clarity is a measure of internal defects of a diamond called inclusions. Inclusions may be crystals of a foreign material or another diamond crystal, or structural imperfections such as tiny cracks that can appear whitish or cloudy. The number, size, color, relative location, orientation, and visibility of inclusions can all affect the relative clarity of a diamond.Diamonds become increasingly rare when considering higher clarity gradings
Diamond cutting is the art and science of creating a gem-quality diamond out of mined rough.The cut of a diamond describes the manner in which a diamond has been shaped and polished from its beginning form as a rough stone to its final gem proportions.